Garima Upadhyay

Associate Professsor (Food & Nutrition), Vasant Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Kamachcha, Varanasi-221010, (India) Mob. 9451203905,


Diabetes is one of the biggest global public health problems with the estimated prevalence to increase from 425 million people in 2017 to 629 million by 2045, with linked health, social and economic costs. Type 2 diabetes is the fourth or fifth leading cause of death in most developed countries and there is growing evidence that it has reached epidemic proportions in many developing and newly industrialized countries. Since diet, physical activity and weight are modifiable factors and are also critical for slowing, or even reversing, this trend. Awareness about diabetes complications and consequent improvement in dietary knowledge, attitude and practices lead to better control of the disease. In order to improve the overall metabolism beyond calorie restriction and weight loss, it is crucial to integrate medical nutrition therapy into primary care of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This paper gives insight into need and different approaches of medical nutrition therapy (MNT) in type 2 diabetes. It outlines various approaches used till present based on studies and recommendations given. It is concluded that collaborative efforts from diabetologists, endocrinologists, and registered dieticians are required, since single approach to diabetes MNT does not exist. The diabetic diet must be nutritionally adequate for the patients’ requirement and it should be tailor made for each individual patient based on age, sex, body weight and physical activity and taking into consideration, their lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, cultural background, and motivation too. Various studies concluded that evidence exists demonstrating that MNT can improve clinical outcomes while possibly decreasing the cost of managing diabetes.

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